Manuscript Sections and Organization
Most manuscripts should be organized as follows. Instructions for each element appear below.
- Conflict of Interest Declarations
- Methods (or Methods and Materials)
- Supporting information captions
- Funding statement
Parts of a Submission
Include a full title of up to 200 characters.
Authorship criteria is based on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.
The ICMJE lists four conditions for authorship credit. Authors must meet all four conditions in order to be listed.
- Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, and
- Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and
- Final approval of the version to be published, and
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Author names and affiliations
Enter author names on the title page of the manuscript and in the online submission system.
On the title page, write author names in the following order:
- First name (or initials, if used)
- Middle name (or initials, if used)
- Last name (surname, family name)
Each author on the list must have an affiliation. The affiliation includes department, university, or organizational affiliation and its location, including city, state/province (if applicable), and country.
If an author has multiple affiliations, enter all affiliations on the title page only. In the submission system, enter only the preferred or primary affiliation. Author affiliations will be listed in the typeset PDF article in the same order that authors are listed in the submission.
Author names will be published exactly as they appear in the manuscript file. Please double-check the information carefully to make sure it is correct.
The submitting author is automatically designated as the corresponding author in the submission system. The corresponding author is the primary contact for the journal office and the only author able to view or change the manuscript while it is under editorial consideration.
The corresponding author role may be transferred to another coauthor. However, note that transferring the corresponding author role also transfers access to the manuscript.
Only one corresponding author can be designated in the submission system, but this does not restrict the number of corresponding authors that may be listed on the article in the event of publication. Whoever is designated as a corresponding author on the title page of the manuscript file will be listed as such upon publication. Include an email address for each corresponding author listed on the title page of the manuscript.
To qualify for authorship, all contributors must meet at least one of the seven core contributions (conceptualization, methodology, software, validation, formal analysis, investigation, data curation), as well as at least one of the writing contributions (original draft preparation, review and editing). Authors may also satisfy the other remaining contributions; however, these alone will not qualify them for authorship.
Contributions will be published with the final article, and they should accurately reflect contributions to the work. The submitting author is responsible for completing this information at submission, and we expect that all authors will have reviewed, discussed, and agreed to their individual contributions ahead of this time.
All authors will be contacted via email at submission to ensure that they are aware of and approve the submission of the manuscript, its content, authorship, and order of authorship. Articles will not be published unless all authors have provided their assent to publication.
The cover letter should address the following questions:
- Why is this manuscript suitable for publication in BHTY?
- Why will your study inspire researchers or clinicians, and how will it improve patient care or public health, or drive the understanding of the health sector forward?
All cover letters should contain these sentences:
- We confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal.
- All authors have approved the manuscript and agree with its submission to Blockchain in Healthcare Today
Redundant or Duplicate Publication
Redundant or duplicate publication is publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published. If redundant or duplicate publication is attempted or occurs without notification to the Editor, authors should expect editorial action to be taken.
When submitting a paper, the author should always make a full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous papers that might be regarded as redundant or duplicate publication of the same or very similar work. The author should alert the editor if the work includes subjects about which a previous paper has been published. Any such work should be referred to and referenced in the new paper. Copies of such material, including papers in press, should be included with the submitted paper to assist the editor in determining how to handle the matter.
Conflict of Interest Declarations: (Follows corresponding author cover letter)
Competing interests include any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications or opinions stated – including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition.
All authors are required to declare a Conflict of Interest upon submission on their cover letter. If your manuscript is published, this information will be communicated in a statement at the end of the published paper.
In addition, authors are asked to complete and submit signed Conflict of Interest statement(s) if your article is accepted for publication. This declaration should list specific competing interests associated with any of the authors. If authors declare that no competing interests exist, the article will include a statement to this effect.
In both cases the corresponding author has to be in a position to report for all co-authors.
Conflict of Interest Declarations Template
- The authors whose names are listed immediately below certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
- The authors whose names are listed immediately below report the following details of affiliation or involvement in an organization or entity with a financial or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript. Please specify the nature of the conflict on a separate sheet of paper if the space below is inadequate.
- This statement is signed by all the authors to indicate agreement that the above information is true and correct
Author name (typed) Author signature Date
Title page of manuscript
The title, authors, and affiliations should all be included on a title page as the first page of the manuscript file.
The abstract must be structured with regulation headings (Objective, Design, Setting, Participants, (Interventions,) Main outcome measures, Results, Conclusions. For meta-analyses often only Objective, Design, Results, Conclusion headings are needed.
Please provide trial registration number for clinical randomized controlled trials
This section should clearly describe the rationale for the study. It should end with a statement of the specific study hypothesis and/or study objectives.
Methods and Findings
- Describe the study participants or what was studied (e.g., patient population, cell lines; be as specific as possible, including numbers of individuals studied). Describe the study design, intervention if applicable, main methods used, primary outcome measure(s), and length of follow up if applicable.
- If appropriate, include how many participants were assessed out of those enrolled. For survey research, include the response rate.
- If critical to the understanding of the paper, describe how results were analyzed, i.e., which specific statistical tests were used.
- Describe the main outcomes and quantify the results using a measure of precision (e.g., 95% confidence interval). Describe any adverse events.
- Describe the main limitations of the study.
- Provide a general interpretation of the results with any important recommendations for future research.
- For a clinical trial, provide any trial identification number(s) and name(s) (e.g., trial registration number, protocol number or acronym).
The Introduction should put the focus of the manuscript into a broader context. Think of readers who are not experts in this field. Include a brief review of key literature. If there are relevant controversies or disagreements in the field, mention them so a non-expert reader can delve into these issues further. The Introduction should end with a brief statement of the overall aim of the experiments and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.
The Methods should provide enough detail for reproduction of the findings. Protocols for new methods should be included. Well-established methodological procedures may simply be referenced. A full description of the methods should be included in the manuscript itself rather than in a supplemental file.
Methods should also include a section with descriptions of any statistical methods used. The description should conform to the criteria outlined by the Uniform Requirements, as follows:
Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to judge its appropriateness for the study and to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size and precision of estimates. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the statistical software package(s) and versions used. Distinguish pre-specified from exploratory analyses, including subgroup analyses.
Submit detailed protocols for newer or less established methods. Well-established protocols may simply be referenced. Protocol documents for clinical trials, observational studies, and other non-laboratory investigations may be uploaded as supporting information.
We recommend you explore laboratory protocols in protocols.io, where protocols can be assigned their own persistent digital object identifiers (DOIs).
To include a link to a protocol in your article:
- Describe your step-by-step protocol on protocols.io
- Select Get DOI to issue your protocol a persistent digital object identifier (DOI)
- Include the DOI link in the Methods section of your manuscript using the following format provided by protocols.io.
This allows editors and reviewers to consult your protocol when evaluating the manuscript. Any referenced protocol(s) will automatically be made public when your article is published.
The Results section should include all primary and secondary outcome measures analyzed. The section may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading. Tables and figures central to the study should be included in the main paper. The Results section should be written in past tense.
BHTY require authors to make all data underlying the findings described in their manuscript fully available without restriction.
For smaller data sets and certain data types, authors may provide their data within “Supporting Information” (see below), accompanying the manuscript. Authors should take care to maximize the accessibility and reusability of the data by selecting a file format from which data can be efficiently extracted (for example, spreadsheets or flat files should be provided rather than PDFs when providing tabulated data).
As outlined in the Uniform Requirements:
Give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical significance attached to them, if any. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which implies a randomizing device), “normal,” “significant,” “correlations,” and “sample.”
The Discussion should be concisely argued. Start with a brief summary of the main findings. Include paragraphs on the generalizability, clinical relevance, strengths, and limitations of your study.
You may also discuss the following points:
- How do the conclusions affect the existing knowledge in the field?
- How can future research build on these observations and what are the key experiments that must occur?
Those who contributed to the work but do not meet authorship criteria should be listed in the Acknowledgments with a description of the contribution.
Authors are responsible for ensuring anyone named in the Acknowledgments agrees to be named.
Do not include funding sources in the Acknowledgments or anywhere in the manuscript file. Funding information should only be entered in the financial disclosure section of the submission system.
This section should describe sources of funding that have supported the work. Please include relevant grant numbers and the URL of any funder's web site. Please also include this sentence: “The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.” If this statement is not correct, you must describe the role of any sponsors or funders, and amend the aforementioned sentence as needed.
Authors are asked to complete and submit signed Conflict of Interest statement(s) if an article is accepted for publication. This declaration lists specific competing interests associated with any of the authors. If authors declare that no competing interests exist, the article will include a statement to this effect.
Any and all available works can be cited in the reference list. Acceptable sources include:
- Published or accepted manuscripts
- Manuscripts on preprint servers, if the manuscript is submitted to a journal and also publicly available as a preprint
Do not cite the following sources in the reference list:
- Unavailable and unpublished work, including manuscripts that have been submitted but not yet accepted (e.g., “unpublished work,” “data not shown”). Instead, include those data as supplementary material or deposit the data in a publicly available database.
- Personal communications (these should be supported by a letter from the relevant authors but not included in the reference list)
References are listed at the end of the manuscript and numbered in the order that they appear in the text.
Do not include citations in abstracts or author summaries.
Make sure the parts of the manuscript are in the correct order before ordering the citations.
BHTY will make every effort to link references electronically to the papers they cite, therefore, proper formatting of the references is crucial.
BHTY uses the reference style outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), also referred to as the “Vancouver” style. Examples are in the ICMJE sample references.