Blockchain in Healthcare Today https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal Blockchain in Healthcare Today (BHTY) is the preeminent open-access international peer-review journal for strategic thought leaders, new-era practitioners, and future society stakeholders engaged in blockchain technology and intersecting innovations in healthcare. The online only journal is published on a continuous basis in order to accelerate sharing of rigorously vetted theoretical and experiential knowledge required for a growth sector. A world-class peer-review board endeavors to offer rapid, peer-review (14 days), and includes constructive commentary to strengthen work. en-US <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;"><img src="/public/site/images/emma/88x31_CC_BY1.png">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">This work is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</span></p> <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">Auth</span><span style="color: #4b7d92;">ors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to Blockchain in Healthcare Today (BHTY). </span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> t.cenaj@partnersindigitalhealth.com (Tory Cenaj) j.russo@partnersindigitalhealth.com (John Russo Jr., PharmD) Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Trust-by-Design: Evaluating Issues and Perceptions within Clinical Passporting https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/140 <p>A substantial administrative burden is placed on healthcare professionals as they manage and progress through their careers. Identity verification, pre-employment screening and appraisals: the bureaucracy associated with each of these processes takes precious time out of a healthcare professional's day. Time that could have been spent focused on patient care. In the midst of the COVID-19 crisis, it is more important than ever to optimize these professionals' time. This paper presents the synthesis of a design workshop held at the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (RCPE) and subsequent interviews with healthcare professionals. The main research question posed is whether these processes can be re-imagined using digital technologies, specifically Self-Sovereign Identity? A key contribution in the paper is the development of a set of user-led requirements and design principles for identity systems used within healthcare. These are then contrasted with the design principles found in the literature. The results of this study confirm the need and potential of professionalising identity and credential management throughout a healthcare professional's career.</p> Will Abramson, Nicole E van Deursen, William J Buchanan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/140 Thu, 09 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0700 OpenPharma Blockchain on FHIR: An Interoperable Solution for Read-Only Health Records Exchange through Blockchain and Biometrics https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/120 <p>The healthcare system in the United States is unique. From payor to provider, patients have the freedom of choice. This creates a complicated and profitable paradigm of care. Legislation defines government expectations of data exchange; however, the methods are left to the discretion of the stakeholders. Today, devices and programs are not built to unified standards, thus they do not share data easily. This communication between software is known as interoperability. We address the health data interoperability by leveraging Fast Health Interoperable Resource (FHIR) standard, a viewer of FHIR called OpenPharma, and Blockchain technology. Our proof of concept, called “OpenPharma Blockchain on FHIR” (OBF), is interoperable by design and grants clinicians access to patient records using a combination of data standards, distributed applications, patient-driven identity management, and the Ethereum blockchain. OBF is a trustless, secure, decentralized, and vendor-independent method for information exchange. It is easy to implement and places the control of records with the patients.</p> Gracie Carter, Ben Chevellereau, Hossain Shahriar, Sweta Sneha ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/120 Tue, 23 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0700 The Last Mile: DSCSA Solution Through Blockchain Technology: Drug Tracking, Tracing, and Verification at the Last Mile of the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain with BRUINchain https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/134 <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: As part of the FDA’s DSCSA Pilot Project Program, UCLA and its solution partner, LedgerDomain (collectively referred to as the team hereafter), focused on building a complete, working blockchain-based system, BRUINchain, which would meet all the key objectives of the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA) for a dispenser operating solely on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The BRUINchain system requirements include scanning the drug package for a correctly formatted 2D barcode, flagging expired product, verifying the product with the manufacturer, and quarantining suspect and illegitimate products <em>at the last mile:</em> pharmacist to patient, the most complex area of the drug supply chain.</p> <p>The authors demonstrate a successful implementation where product-tracing notifications are sent automatically to key stakeholders, resulting in enhanced timeliness and reduction in paperwork burden. At the core of this effort was a blockchain-based solution to track and trace changes in custody of drug. As an immutable, time-stamped, near-real-time (50-millisecond latency), auditable record of transactions, BRUINchain makes it possible for supply chain communities to arrive at a single version of the truth. BRUINchain was tested with real data on real caregivers administering life-saving medications to real patients at one of the busiest pharmacies in the United States.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In addition to communicating with the manufacturer directly for verification, BRUINchain also initiated suspect product notifications. During the study, a 100% success rate was observed across scanning, expiration detection, and counterfeit detection; and paperwork reduction from approximately 1 hour to less than a minute.</p> <p>The authors demonstrate a successful implementation where product-tracing notifications are sent automatically to key stakeholders, resulting in enhanced timeliness and reduction in paperwork burden. At the core of this effort was a blockchain-based solution to track and trace changes in custody of drug. As an immutable, time-stamped, near-real-time (50-millisecond latency), auditable record of transactions, BRUINchain makes it possible for supply chain communities to arrive at a single version of the truth. BRUINchain was tested with real data on real caregivers administering life-saving medications to real patients at one of the busiest pharmacies in the United States.</p> <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> By automatically interrogating the manufacturer’s relational database with our blockchain-based system, our results indicate a projected DSCSA compliance cost of 17 cents per unit, and potentially much more depending on regulatory interpretation and speed of verification. We project that this cost could be reduced with manufacturers’ adoption of a highly performant, fully automated end-to-end system based on digital ledger technology (DLT). In an examination of the interoperability of such a system, we elaborate on its capacity to enable verification in real time without a human in the loop, the key feature driving lower compliance cost. With 4.2 billion prescriptions being dispensed each year in the United States, DLT would not only reduce the projected per-unit cost to 13 cents per unit (saving $183 million in annual labor costs), but also serve as a major bulwark against bad or fraudulent transactions, reduce the need for safety stock, and enhance the detection and removal of potentially dangerous drugs from the drug supply chain to protect U.S. consumers.</p> William Chien, Josenor de Jesus, Ben Taylor, Victor Dods, Leo Alekseyev, Diane Shoda, Perry B. Shieh ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/134 Thu, 12 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0700 Predictions for Blockchain in 2020 https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/126 <p>During our 2019 ConVerge2Xcelerate (ConV2X) conference in Boston, we focused on the theme "Proving Market Value with Pragmatic Innovation in Healthcare"&nbsp;(see&nbsp;<a href="https://conv2x-2019.eventcreate.com/">https://conv2x-2019.eventcreate.com/</a>). This year, along with BHTY editorial board members, conference speakers were invited to join with Tory Cenaj, Publisher of BHTY, to contribute their&nbsp;expertise and share insights for the near-term landscape of blockchain in healthcare.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> George T. Mathew, Dennis A Porto, Ron Ribitzky, Susan Ramonat, Uli C Broedl, Kevin A Clauson, Frank Ricotta, Tory Cenaj, Anh L Ngo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/126 Mon, 27 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800 The Fourth Industrial Revolution of Healthcare Information Technology: Key Business Components to Unlock the Value of a Blockchain-Enabled Solution https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/139 <p><em>Editor’s note: This article is one of an ongoing series covering topics published in conjunction with the Health Information Management and Systems Society (HIMSS) describing the development of blockchain technology and its applicability to healthcare.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;As described by the World Economic Forum (WEF),<sup><a href="#CIT0001_139">1</a></sup>&nbsp;the fourth industrial revolution is here and is changing business models across every industry vertical. This revolution includes digital technology, big data, artificial intelligence, distributed ledger technology (DLT, or blockchain), and analytics, and represents new ways in which technology is being integrated into societies.</p> <p>This changing interaction with technology will impact business models. Traditional business models are historically based on a centralized framework for delivery of goods and services to the consumer. The new business model is based on the decentralization of the creation and delivery of goods and services. At the core of the new model, organizations must demonstrate value-creation and value-delivery, while ensuring their solutions are secure, scalable, and interoperable to remain competitive. A decentralized business model built on a blockchain framework can provide the decentralization and security needed for this industry shift.&nbsp;</p> Ann Ingraham, Jim St. Clair ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/139 Mon, 08 Jun 2020 11:29:07 -0700 Blockchain, Interoperability, and Self-Sovereign Identity: Trust Me, It’s My Data https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/122 <p>No abstract available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jim StClair, Ann Ingraham, Dominic King, Michael B. Marchant, Fletcher Cotesworth McCraw, David Metcalf, John Squeo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/122 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800 The business case for blockchain in health care — part I https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/137 <p>While an organization might want to focus on a specific emerging technology to solve a business probelm, strong organizations focus on an honest evaluation, internally and externally, to assure the timing and the business value for using the technology is in their best interest.&nbsp; This requires a solution set of knowledge, people, and methodologies coupled with products datas and tools.</p> Ali Loveys, Chen Zur ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/137 Fri, 13 Mar 2020 13:22:50 -0700 The Era of Exponential Improvement in Healthcare? https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/128 Stephanie Carlton ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/128 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800 Building Blockchain powered Trusted Digital Health Services. Estonia https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/129 Ain Aaviksoo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/129 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800 Design Principles Of The Blockchain Network: Security, Scalability, And Sustainability By Design https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/131 Nitin Gaur, Francisco Curbera ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/131 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800 Validated Use Cases https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/130 Wendy Charles, Kenneth Colon, Moderator: Frank Ricotta ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/130 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800 Blockchain-enabled Seamless Safe Notification Services https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/132 Vince Albanese ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/132 Mon, 06 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800 Dawn of a New Decade: Looking Forward with BHTY https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/125 <p>In 2020, Blockchain in Healthcare Today (BHTY) begins its third year of publication.&nbsp;We thank our global community of passionate leaders and early adopters for their support and diligence in making technology innovation in healthcare attainable for both the healthcare consumers who are the key stakeholders in patient-centered care and the broader healthcare system.</p> Tory Cenaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://blockchainhealthcaretoday.com/index.php/journal/article/view/125 Mon, 13 Jan 2020 00:00:00 -0800