Sections and Organization

Most manuscripts should be organized as follows. Instructions for each element appear below.

  • Title
  • Authors
  • Affiliations
  • Conflict of Interest Declarations
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods (or Methods and Materials)
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Supporting information captions
  • Redundancy
  • Funding statement
  • Competing Interests
  • References
  • Supporting Information
  • Figures, Tables and Multimedia

Parts of a Submission

Note: BHTY Authors are responsible for disclosing financial support from the industry or other conflicts of interest that might bias the interpretation of results. All submitted manuscripts must include a ‘Conflict of Interests’ section listing all competing interests (financial and non-financial). Read more on declaring conflicts of interest. If no competing interests exist, please state in this section, "The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest". NB! 'Conflict of interest and funding' should be added to the Title page that is separated from the main manuscript.

Title Page


Include a full title of up to 200 characters.

Author List

Authorship requirements

Authorship criteria is based on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) as stated under Authorship and related information.

The ICMJE lists four conditions for authorship  here. The conditions are published below, as they appear, on the ICMJE site.

  • Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, and
  • Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and
  • Final approval of the version to be published, and
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved

Author names and affiliations

On the title page of your submission, enter author names of the manuscript. Write author names in the following order:

  • First name (or initials, if used), Middle name (or initial), Last name (surname/family name)

Each author listed must have an affiliation. The affiliation can include department, university, or organizational affiliation. Please include city, state/province (if applicable), and country.

If an author has multiple affiliations, enter them all on the title page only. In the BHTY submission system, enter only the preferred or primary affiliation. Author affiliations will be listed in the same order they are listed in the submission file.

Author names will be published exactly as they appear in the manuscript. BHTY will not be responsible for incorrectly submitted information.

Corresponding author

The submitting author will be designated as the corresponding author in the submission system. Corresponding authors act as BHTY's primary submission contact and the only author able to view or change the manuscript while it is under editorial review.

The corresponding author role may be transferred to another coauthor. Transferring the corresponding author role also transfers access to the manuscript submission. The corresponding author will be listed as such upon publication. Please include an email address for each corresponding author listed on the title page of the manuscript.

Author Contributions

To qualify for authorship, all contributors must meet at least one of the seven core contributions (conceptualization, methodology, software, validation, formal analysis, investigation, data curation), as well as at least one of the writing contributions (original draft preparation, review and editing). Authors may also satisfy the other remaining contributions; however, these alone will not qualify them for authorship.

Contributions will be published with the final article, and they should accurately reflect contributions to the work. The submitting author is responsible for completing this information at submission. BHTY expects all authors will have reviewed, discussed, and agreed to their individual contributions/roles.

Conflict of Interests: (section to be included on the title page and uploaded separately)

Competing interests include any financial interests, direct or indirect, that might raise questions regarding bias in the your work, conclusions, implications or perspectives stated – including relevant commercial or other sources of funding for each individual author(s).

All submitted manuscripts must include a ‘Conflict of Interests’ section listing all competing interests (financial and non-financial). Read more on declaring conflicts of interest. If no competing interests exist, please state in this section, "The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest". NB! Conflict of interest and funding should be added to the Title page that is separated from the main manuscript.

It is the role of the corresponding author to ensure this is adhered to.

Cover letter

The cover letter should address the following questions:

  • Why is this manuscript suitable for publication in BHTY?
  • Why will your study inspire researchers or clinicians, and how will it improve patient care or public health, or drive the understanding of the health sector forward?

All cover letters should contain these sentences:

  • We confirm this manuscript has not been published elsewhere, no parts are plagiarized in any form or degree, and is not under consideration by another journal.
  • All authors have approved the manuscript and agree with its submission to Blockchain in Healthcare Today

Redundant or Duplicate Publication

According to COPE, a redundant publication is a wok or sections of that work that is published more than once.  If redundant or duplicate publication is attempted or occurs without notification to BHTY, the journal will follow the editorial action contained in the COPE Flowchart for Redundant Publication.

Authors should alert the editor if the work includes subject matter about which a previous paper has been published. Referred work should be referenced in the new paper. Copies of materials, including papers in press, should be submitted with your manuscript submission to assist the editor in determining how to handle the issue.


Your original research submission MUST contain an abstract. The Abstract comes after the title page in the manuscript file. The journal requires structured abstracts. The abstract should be 250-400 words. Please see CONSORT or PRISMA style abstract formats to determine which to use for your paper.

The abstract must be structured with headings (Objective, Design, Setting, Participants, Interventions, Main outcome measures, Results, Conclusions. For meta-analyses usually Objective, Design, Results, Conclusion headings are needed.

Please provide trial registration number for clinical randomized controlled trials


This section should clearly describe your study rationale. It should end with a statement of the specific study hypothesis and/or study objectives.

Methods and Findings

  • Describe study participants or what was studied (e.g., patient population,  be specific). Describe the study design, intervention, methods used, outcome measure(s), and any follow up.
  • Include how many participants completed out of those enrolled, and response rates where applicable.
  • Describe how results were analyzed, i.e., which specific statistical tests were used.
  • Describe the main outcomes and quantify results using % confidence intervals if possible. Describe adverse events.
  • Describe any limitations of the study.


  • Provide an interpretation of results with recommendations for future research.
  • For clinical trials, provide the trial identification number(s) and name(s) (e.g., trial registration number, protocol number or acronym).


The Introduction should present a broad context for the manuscript. Think of readers who are not experts that may read your article. Include a brief review of key literature. If there are relevant issues pro and con in the field, mention them so a non-expert can understand. The Introduction should end with a statement of the overall purpose of the experiment(s) and a commentary on whether it was achieved.


The Methods should provide enough detail for reproduction of the findings. Protocols for new methods should be included. Well-established methodological procedures may simply be referenced. A full description of the methods should be included within the manuscript.

Methods should also include a section with descriptions of any statistical methods used. The description should conform to the ICMJE Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication, published in the J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2010 Jan-Jun; 1(1): 42–58., and available at the following link here. It reads as follows:

"Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to judge its appropriateness for the study and to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size and precision of estimates. References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the statistical software package(s) and versions used. Distinguish pre-specified from exploratory analyses, including subgroup analyses."

Submit detailed protocols for newer or less established methods. Well-established protocols may simply be referenced. Protocol documents for clinical trials, observational studies, and other non-laboratory investigations may be uploaded as supporting information.

We recommend you explore laboratory protocols in, where protocols can be assigned their own persistent digital object identifiers (DOIs).

To include a link to a protocol in your article:

  1. Describe your step-by-step protocol on
  2. Select Get DOI to issue your protocol a persistent digital object identifier (DOI) 
  3. Include the DOI link in the Methods section of your manuscript using the following format provided by

This allows editors and reviewers to consult your protocol when evaluating the manuscript. Any referenced protocol(s) will automatically be made public when your article is published.


The Results section should include all primary and secondary outcome measures analyzed. The section may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading. Tables and figures central to the study should be included in the main paper. The Results section should be written in past tense.

BHTY strongly urges authors to make all data underlying the findings described in their manuscript fully available without restriction.

For smaller data sets and certain data types, authors may provide their data within their manuscript or in Supporting Information files accompanying the manuscript. Authors should attempt to maximize the accessibility and reusability of data by selecting file formats where data can be easily and efficiently extracted. An example is spreadsheets or flat files in lieu of PDFs for tabulated data.

Again, as outlined in the  ICMJE Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication, published in the J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2010 Jan-Jun; 1(1): 42–58., and available at the following link here. The following is recommended:

"Give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical significance attached to them, if any. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess supporting data. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which implies a randomizing device), “normal,” “significant,” “correlations,” and “sample.”


The Discussion should be tightly argued. Start with a summary of the main findings. Include paragraphs on the generalizability, clinical relevance, strengths, and limitations of your study.

You may also want to add the following:

  • How conclusions affect existing knowledge in the field?
  • How might future research build on your observations and what path forward should we seek as a result?


Those who contributed to the work but do not meet authorship criteria should be listed in Acknowledgments with a description of their role. Authors are responsible for ensuring those named in Acknowledgments agree to be included. Please note that the Acknowledgement section should be included in the title page and uploaded separately to ensure a double blind review.

DO NOT include funding sources in this section. Funding information is only entered in the FUNDING STATEMENT section.

Funding statement

This section should describe sources of funding that have supported the work. Please include relevant grant numbers and the URL of any funder's web site. Please also include this sentence: “The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.” Otherwise, describe the role of your sponsors or funders, and amend the aforementioned sentence as needed.



All available works can be cited in the reference list. Acceptable sources include:

  • Published or accepted manuscripts
  • Manuscripts on preprint servers, if the manuscript is submitted to a journal and also publicly available as a preprint

Do not cite the following sources in the reference list:

  • Unavailable and unpublished work, submitted but not yet accepted manuscripts.  Include this data as supplementary material or deposit the data in a publicly available database.

References are listed at the end of the manuscript and numbered in the order that they appear in the text.

Do not include citations in abstracts or author summaries. 

Make sure the parts of the manuscript are in the correct order before ordering the citations.

Formatting references

BHTY will make every effort to link references electronically to the papers they cite, therefore, proper formatting of the references is crucial. 

BHTY uses the reference style outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), also referred to as the “Vancouver” style.

In-text citations

We suggest you cite supporting information in the manuscript text, but this is not a requirement. If you cite supporting information in the text, citations do not need to be in numerical order.

Supporting Information

Authors can submit essential supporting files and multimedia files along with their manuscripts. All supporting information will be subject to peer review. All file types can be submitted. Supporting information files are published exactly as provided, and are not copyedited.

Supporting information captions

List supporting information captions at the end of the manuscript file and not in a separate file. The file number and name are required in a caption. We recommend including a one-line title. You can include a legend, but it is not required.


Figures, Tables and Multimedia

Figure preparation files

BHTY does not redraw figures.

Figure citations

Cite figures consecutively in the order they have been cited in the text.  If you are using a figure that has been published previously, you must obtain written approval to reproduce it.

Figure captions must be inserted in the text of the manuscript immediately following the paragraph in which the figure was first cited (read order). Do not include captions as part of the figure files themselves. Please be sure all numbers, letters, and symbols that appear with figures are large enough to read when they are reduced for publication.

Legends for illustrations should be on a separate page of the manuscript.

Upon revision, each figure must be prepared and submitted to the submission system as an individual file.


Cite tables in ascending numeric order upon first appearance in the manuscript file.

Place each table in your manuscript file directly after the paragraph in which it is first cited (read order). Do not submit your tables in separate files.

Tables require a label (e.g., “Table 1”) and brief descriptive title to be placed above the table. Place legends, footnotes, and other text below the table. 

Multimedia and 3D Models

BHTY publishes multimedia and 3D models embedded in the HTML and PDF versions of articles. These will be displayed in line with article text, as are with figures.

Multimedia and 3D models are accepted when needed to show findings that 1) are critical to argue article conclusions and 2) can't be satisfactorily presented in text, table, or figure. The editors will determine if this medium is used appropriately.

Text Citation

Multimedia and 3D models must be numbered independently of figures and tables, and cited at the relevant point in the manuscript text, e.g., “Movie 1”, and “Model 1”.


A title should be part of the legend and not incorporated in the multimedia or 3D model itself.


A legend must be included in the manuscript document after the reference list and not included in the video or 3D model itself. Legends should include sufficient detail to be intelligible without reference to the text. Legends must define all symbols and include essential information. If videos are not in real time and the time is not displayed in the video, the period represented must be stated in the legend. Rather than stating “See text,” legends should be more specific; for example, “See Results”.

Size and Format

Video and 3D models should be sized at minimum to convey essential scientific information. Multimedia files must be in MP4 format, and should not be larger than one megabyte. 3D models must be in U3D format.

Please be sure to optimize videos for PC, tablet, and smartphone viewing.

For each video, please submit a preview image, or poster frame, that best illustrates the main focus.

Should you have additional questions as to Figures, Tables, and Multimedia, please contact the managing editor or publisher.